Internet2 Timeline : The First 20 Years
This timeline is a celebration of key moments in the R&E community through 2016. We consider this to be a living timeline and work in progress. Watch for updates in 2021 when Internet2 celebrates its 25th anniversary!
2016 marked the 20th anniversary of the founding of Internet2, and we’re very proud of what our community has accomplished. Take a few moments to explore some of the events that marked our progress and sparked “what’s next.” Scroll down, or click on a year below to see the major events for that year.
Collaborators from MIT proposed early research on packet switching theory. Soon after, the Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), in collaboration with the RAND group, create the first wide-area computer network and develop a plan for the ARPANET.
The first node-to-node traffic is transmitted over the first network that later introduces the “Internet Protocol”—created through the collaboration between higher education and DARPA.
ALOHA—Additive Links On-line Hawaii Area (ALOHAnet), a pioneering computer networking system developed at the University of Hawaii, provides the first public demonstration of a wireless packet data network. Originally a radio network for communication among the Hawaiian Islands, the Aloha protocol later inspires the first experimental Ethernet network (Alto Aloha Network, developed by Xerox PARC). Ethernet is widely acknowledged as a fundamental innovation, and when combined with the explosive information sharing of the World Wide Web, gives birth to a new world of computing and communications technology.
A collaboration between DARPA and Stanford begins to detail the design of what would become the TCP/IP protocol.
A cloud is used, perhaps for the first time, in diagrams of ARPANET.
The SUN workstation, a modular computer system, is developed by Stanford University from Xerox-donated Alto computers and connected using Ethernet to form several local area networks. The Ethernet-connected workstation brings about a revolutionary change in the world of computing, and becomes the seed technology for many commercial products—including the original workstations from Sun Microsystems, founded by Stanford graduate students—deriving the name “Sun” from the initials for Stanford University Network.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) funds the Computer Science Network (CSNET) to provide networking services—from email to full Internet access—to computer science researchers. This created a vital link between the ARPANET and the later NSFNET and was the first expansion of the Internet beyond the group of early DoD-funded projects.<p>
First Multiprotocol Routers Created<p>
The first multiprotocol routers are created by staff researchers at MIT and Stanford in 1981, bringing the TCP/IP protocol work of Stanford, MIT, and many other R&E community collaborators to fruition, and setting the stage for the transition of ARPANET to TCP/IP.
The transition of the ARPANET host protocol from NCP to TCP/IP occurs on January 1. All hosts were required to convert simultaneously or be left to communicate via ad hoc mechanisms. ARPAnet’s support for TCP/IP coupled with CSNET’s success helps the Internet grow beyond the ARPA community, setting the stage for the NSFNET project—which eventually becomes a backbone of the Internet.
The NSF establishes NSFNET, a network connecting supercomputing centers to other campus networks using TCP/IP, PDP-11 minicomputers and running at a speed of 56 Kbps.
Using the ARPANET and the 56 Kbps NSFNET, NSF encourages and funds the formation of regional networks, connecting a rapidly growing number of research universities.
Internet Emerges from First Regional Network
In February 1987, the Southeastern Universities Research Association network (SURAnet), the first regional network, becomes operational. SURAnet later (1988) becomes the interconnect for NSFNET and other federal and fledgling commercial networks under the name Federal Internet Exchange (FIX). This is the start of the interconnected Internet we know today.
First R&E Network Management
A Merit-led consortium (including IBM, MCI, and the Michigan Strategic Fund) win a $39 million award from the National Science Foundation to re-engineer and manage the NSFNET, the first national high-speed Internet backbone for research and education (R&E).
First Non-Governmental Network Emerges
New York State’s leading academic institutions create a 56 Kbps statewide electronic network to connect New York’s major research universities and corporations to each other, to supercomputer facilities at Cornell and Princeton, and to NSFNET. NYSERNet becomes the first entity outside of the US Government to use the Internet protocol.
Internet Service Provider Models Emerge
Growth of the network and non-ARPANET users strain network resources. Researchers at the Center for Seismic Studies explore the viability of providing connection services commercially and UUNET is founded as a non-profit corporation providing Usenet feeds, e-mail exchange, and access to a large repository of software source code and related information. UUNET later becomes a pioneer commercial network, is privatized and acquired by MCI, and later, Verizon Business.
In partnership with IBM and MCI, with funding and direction from NSF, MERIT puts into operation a greatly improved backbone, initially at 448 Kbps and then at 1.5 Mbps, and provides engineering and operations leadership enabling regional networks to connect more universities and support new applications.
NSFNET Speeds Up, Sets Stage for Internet2
Going from 56 Kbps to T1 service (1.5 Mbps), the network serves more sites but announces it will end support for NSFNET—which is decommissioned by 1995—a decision which later propels Internet2 into existence.
The Internet’s First Virus—The Morris Worm
On November 2, 1988, Robert Morris, a Cornell graduate student, releases a virus that unintentionally infects and crashes a substantial number of all Internet-connected computers. The Internet was essentially down for several days.
Anticipating the Internet’s potential as game-changing resource for both commerce and R&E, NYSERNet creates a commercial company, Performance Systems International (PSI, later PSInet), to alleviate the burden of statewide network management and operations. PSI assumes operational responsibility for the network as NYSERNet focuses on facilitating advanced R&E applications like teleconferencing and large data set transfer. PSI later becomes one of the first Internet connectivity providers.
As the NSFNET and its related regional networks continue to connect more colleges, universities, and research laboratories, the first commercial networks begin to expand. Controversy emerges due to the mismatch of NSFNET acceptable use policies and the need for unrestricted commercial use.
Birth of the World Wide Web (WWW)
Tim Berners-Lee, a researcher with CERN, invents the protocols necessary to access web pages on diverse computers in a standard way and implements the first web server and web pages.
Advanced Network and Services (ANS) Established
ANS is formed as a non-profit organization by the NSFNET partners (Merit Network, IBM, and MCI) to run the network infrastructure for the soon-to-be-upgraded NSFNET Backbone Service. In 1995, ANS sells its networking business to America Online (AOL), which is in turn acquired by Verizon Communications in 2015.
The NSFNET partnership upgrades the backbone to 45 Mbps, setting the stage for even more participation and better support for new applications such as the World Wide Web. NSFNET begins to back away from funding the backbone and allows commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) to take over, triggering the explosive growth of the Internet in 1995.
Early Web Browser ViolaWWW Created
Viola (Visually Interactive Object-oriented Language and Application) is invented at the University of California, Berkeley as a UNIX-based programming/scripting language. ViolaWWW is the first browser to add extended functionality such as embedded scriptable objects, stylesheets, and tables, and becomes the recommended browser at CERN, as well as a predecessor to Mosaic.
The NSF funds the NSRC to provide technical assistance to organizations setting up computer networks in developing areas for collaboration with US scientists. Today, the NSRC, based at the University of Oregon, provides network engineering assistance and technical training to improve Internet access in more than 100 countries around the world, with emphasis on research and education networks operating in Africa, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East.
The need for supercomputer access and research university support combined with massive increases in wide-area performance from NSFNET’s upgrades creates an environment in which WWW development could thrive. The Mosaic web browser is developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and released. Mosaic is the first browser to display images inline with text. Mosaic successors Netscape Navigator, Google, Internet Explorer, Safari, and Firefox build on Mosaic graphical user interface (GUI) characteristics such as the URL address bar, back/forward/reload buttons and other interactive elements.
On April 12, 1994, Canter and Siegel, attorneys-at-law, post individual copies of an advertisement concerning the green card lottery to 5,500 Usenet groups, creating the first major commercial spam incident. Much of the traffic is carried over the NSFNET. NSF declines to restrict the traffic on free speech grounds.
Netscape Navigator Emerges from R&E Community
Netscape Navigator</a> is developed by original NCSA Mosaic authors. Based on long-standing R&E community ideals of abundance and access, Netscape initially announces Navigator will be freely available for non-commercial use in accordance with the notion that Internet software should be distributed for free.
Lycos Emerges from R&E Community
The Lycos search engine and web portal is established as a university research project at Carnegie Mellon University, later spinning off into a series of corporate ventures—making it the most visited online destination in the world in 1999, with a global presence in more than 40 countries.
16 Million Internet Users | 0.4% World Population
With funding and direction from NSF, MCI brings up the very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), connecting a limited number of research universities with 155 Mbps performance and experimental native ATM functionality. The vBNS was later critically valuable as the initial backbone for the early Internet2 gigapops (gigabit points-of-presence).
NSFNET is Decommissioned
NSFNET is decommissioned, leaving only commercially operated backbones to serve the US research and education community.
Networking and Telecommunications Task Force Formed
The Networking and Telecommunications Task Force (NTTF) is formed by EDUCOM, providing guidance for network usage by higher education. Through a series of meetings, workshops, and working groups, the kernel of what would become Internet2 is formed.
NSF High-Performance Network Connections (HPNC) Award Program Begins
With the start of the vBNS, NSF began a series of programs designed to help universities and research institutions join advanced high-performance research networks. In its eight-year history (1995–2003)—and bolstered by the Next Generation Internet program announced by President Clinton in October 1996—the High-Performance Network Connections program helped 250 institutions enhance their high-end network connectivity, many to Internet2 members in all 50 states.
Google Emerges from R&E Community
Google begins as Ph.D. research project at Stanford University, using the domain google.stanford.edu. The domain google.com is later registered in 1997 and formally incorporated in 1998. Seemingly derived from their R&E roots, Google’s declared code of conduct for the 2004 IPO notes: “We believe strongly that in the long term, we will be better served—as shareholders and in all other ways—by a company that does good things for the world even if we forgo some short term gains.”
Internet Explorer Emerges from R&E Community
Microsoft licenses Mosaic from Spyglass (a software company offshoot of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign/NCSA) as the basis of Internet Explorer 1.0—released as an add-on to Windows 95 in the Microsoft Plus! software package. Microsoft subsequently bundles Internet Explorer with Windows, and all versions created before Internet Explorer 7 acknowledge Spyglass as the licensor of the IE browser code.
Monterey, CA Futures Workshop Held
Attendees of the Futures Workshop conclude that the commodity Internet will not evolve rapidly enough to meet higher education’s imminent and foreseeable high-performance enterprise network and Internet networking service and capacity needs. This meeting is recognized as the beginning of what would become the Internet II Project.
36 Million Internet Users | 0.9% World Population
Thirty-four university leaders gather at the Chicago O’Hare Hilton on October 1, 1996, and commit to establishing a project to foster the development of networking capabilities that would not only advance research and education but also eventually make their way into the global commercial Internet.
Internet2 Trademark Filed, 80 Higher Education Members Confirmed by Year’s End
In the first three months, Internet2 membership grows rapidly. Early and enduring engineering emphases are pulled into a Preliminary Engineering Report.
First Internet2 Project Director Selected
Michael M. Roberts, former CIO at Stanford, becomes Internet2 Project Director. Mike transitions from his position at EDUCOM, where he was responsible for creating the networking policy program and served as Director of the Networking and Telecommunications Task Force (NTTF).
123 Higher Education Members | 6 Industry Members | 70 million Internet Users |1.7% World Population
With only 34 initial member universities in October 1996, the Internet2 Project has grown to over 100 participating research universities by its first project Member Meeting at the Airport Hyatt in San Francisco, California, January 22–23, 1997. Preliminary Internet2 applications and engineering reports are presented. Early work focuses on architecture, encouragement of gigapops, and exploration of applications that would be enabled by the anticipated network.
Network Caching and Akamai Emerge from R&E Community
With congestion becoming familiar to Internet users, MIT developers invent a better way to deliver Internet content, creating mathematical algorithms to intelligently route and replicate content over a large network of distributed servers. Akamai obtains an exclusive license and, powered mostly by students who had worked on the project there, Akamai’s technologies provide a revolutionary Internet performance solution.
Internet2 Gigapops Created
Around the country, Internet2 community leaders create advanced gigapops (gigabit points-of-presence) that leverage the NSF/MCI vBNS network to connect member universities. The vBNS thus serves as the initial Internet2 Network backbone.
University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID) Incorporated
Internet2 is formally incorporated as a not-for-profit 501.c.3 organization. Douglas E. Van Houweling is selected as Internet2 President and CEO. A Board of Trustees is formed and includes member (constituent) governance councils: Applications Strategy Council, Network Planning and Policy Advisory Council, and Network Research Liaison Council. Van Houweling is inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame in 2014.
First Internet2 Member Meeting Features Advanced Applications Demonstrations
In the first Internet2 Member Meeting after incorporation, 100 higher education members and 10 affiliates (7 affiliates are regional networks) come together at Highway 1 in Washington, DC, October 7, 1997. Demonstrations were run through the vBNS over three model campus networks connected to San Diego, Chicago, Pittsburgh, and Ann Arbor—all illustrating the efforts underway at Internet2 universities to engineer prototype network facilities and develop advanced applications crucial to their research and education missions in the next century. The spring/fall member meeting format continues until 2013, succeeded by the Internet2 Global Summit.
Board of Trustees Holds First Meeting
First Internet2 Board of Trustees meeting held in Washington, DC, assumes all members, resources and responsibilities of the Internet2 Project. David Ward, Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin, is named Board Chair. Molly Broad, Chancellor University of North Carolina System, Graham Spanier, President Penn State, M. Stuart Lynn, CIO University of California President’s Office, and Greg Jackson, CIO University of Chicago are the initial Trustees.
Canada Becomes First Internet2 International Partner
CANARIE and Internet2 agree to connect the most advanced research and education backbone networks in Canada and the US. Through peering between Internet2 and CANARIE’s CA*net II and CA*net 3 networks, over 70 US universities and 45 Canadian institutions enjoy advanced network connectivity by the end of 1999.
Cisco Becomes First Internet2 Corporate Partner
Cisco Systems becomes Internet2’s first Corporate Partner, contributing goods and services worth more than $1,000,000. Cisco’s pledge supports the collaborative effort by Internet2’s member universities to build a next-generation Internet with advanced network services in support of research and education.
135 Higher Education Members | 44 Industry Members | 22 Affiliate Members | 5 International MOU Partners | 147 Million Internet users | 3.6% World Population
The Internet2 Abilene Network is announced at the White House with Vice President Al Gore, Vint Cerf, and others. View video footage. The network is made possible through a partnership with Qwest Communications, Cisco Systems, and Nortel Networks. Terry Rogers is named as Abilene director. Indiana University provides the Abilene Network Operations Center (NOC) and contributes heavily to its engineering and deployment. Most of the cable is laid within railroad rights-of-way—one of the reasons Abilene is selected as the network’s codename.
First Internet2 Day
MCNC hosts the first Internet2 Day. Through various presentations and demonstrations, students and faculty across the nation witness firsthand a sampling of applications and projects that take advantage of the Internet2 Network’s ultra-high-speed capacity. These events are held both virtually and locally at various university campuses and continue for over a decade.
First Working Group Meetings
First Internet2 Working Group meetings take place. Initial emphases include Quality of Service, Multicast, and IPv6.
Industry Strategy Council Forms
Industry Strategy Council forms. Dick Liebhaber, Qwest Communications, is the first chair.
Expert Advisory Councils Formed
Members of three initial advisory councils that will guide higher education’s Internet2 advanced networking effort are announced. Drawn from academia, government, and industry, the advisory council members—also significant contributors to Internet development—assist Internet2 in the areas of advanced applications development, network policy and planning, network research, and strategic vision.
First Joint Techs Workshop
The first Joint Techs Workshop is sponsored by NLANR and Internet2, with the networking group at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, a research division of Carnegie Mellon University, being the local host. While the first joint meeting focuses on unitizing the vBNS and Abilene networks (hence the name “joint”), the meeting is preceded by two vBNS Techs Workshops. Funding for part of the workshop comes from NSF NLANR grants, specifically NLANR NCNE, a collaboration between PSC and NCAR. Later co-sponsored by Internet2 and the <a href=”http://es.net/”>Department of Energy’s Energy Sciences Network</a> (ESnet) Site Coordinating Committee (ESCC), the Joint Techs conference series brings together networking experts from research institutions around the world to address the most pressing challenges facing R&E networks for years to come. The meeting format concludes in 2013, succeeded by the Internet2 Technology Exchange beginning in Fall 2014.
Internet2 Launches Middleware Initiative
Internet2 launches the Middleware Initiative to promote standardization and interoperability and to support the deployment of middleware services—including identification, authentication, authorization, directories, and security services—at Internet2 member universities.
168 Higher Education Members | 63 Industry Members | 36 Affiliate Members | 28 Connectors | 19 International MOU Partners | 248 Million Internet Users | 4.1% World Population
At Union Station, Washington, DC, February 24, 1999, the Internet2 Abilene Network is launched “to extend the frontiers of research and education,” less than eight months after being announced. During the launch event, the University of Washington ran a continuous demonstration of multiple transcontinental MPEG2 video streams. Through the support of Qwest Communications, Cisco, Nortel, and Indiana University, Abilene—the Internet2 backbone network—spans over 13,000 miles of fiber optic cable and operates at 2.4 Gbps, a speed 45,000 times faster than the NSFNET’s initial 56 Kbps. By the end of the year, more than 70 Internet2 members participate in Abilene, which is interconnected with vBNS, providing coordinated backbone services to the Internet2 gigapops.
OARnet Opens Internet2 Technology Evaluation Center (ITEC)
OARnet opens ITEC-Ohio as a national network-testing laboratory for the Internet2 community. ITEC-Ohio is a consortium of Ohio universities, government agencies, and corporate partners who examine critical new applications, infrastructure problems, and emerging technologies in order to meet future needs in research, education, government, and commerce.
NCNI Becomes ITEC
The North Carolina Networking Initiative (NCNI) becomes the second national Internet2 Technology Evaluation Center (ITEC). The NCNI ITEC works with the Abilene project team and the Indiana NOC to help resolve problems that arise in network operations and test new network components.
The Megaconference Series is First 1,000+ Multipoint Videoconference
OARnet, The Ohio State University, and MAGPI provide staff, equipment, and other resources to host the first 1,000+ Multipoint Videoconference through the Internet2 Commons. The Megaconference and Megaconference Jr. series are hosted through 2012.
Internet2 Sociotechnical Summit Hosted
Sponsored by Cisco Systems, ANS, Inc., the John Evans Foundation, the University of Texas Austin, and the University of Michigan, the summit brings together thought leaders whose advanced networking activities have potential for contributing to future Social Sciences research.
Early Harvest Technical Workshop Kicks Off Internet2 Middleware Effort
Funded through a National Science Foundation grant, this workshop was Internet2’s first major effort to establish middleware as an area of emphasis. The resulting best practices document, “Identifiers, Authentication, and Directories: Best Practices for Higher Education,” led to a cohort of 11 campuses working together to adopt the best practices. The cohort’s next question, “what happens when someone wants to access off-campus services,” eventually led to the development of Shibboleth and the InCommon Federation.
First CANS Hosted
The first Chinese American Networking Symposium (CANS) takes place in College Park, Maryland, hosted by the University of Maryland. CANS becomes an annual event focusing on linking the R&E networking communities of the US and China. The partnership between the US and Chinese communities continues to strengthen and evolve.
Internet2 Establishes Critical Partnerships with European NRENs
A memorandum of understanding (MOU) between Internet2 and DANTE (building on MOUs already in place) makes all European national research and education networks (NRENs) MOU partners and establishes interconnectivity with TEN-155, the European R&E backbone network operated by DANTE.
182 Higher Education Members | 75 Industry Members | 37 Affiliate Members | 33 Connectors | 30 International MOU Partners | 361 Million Internet Users | 5.8% World Population
This ground-breaking deployment has native multicast capabilities. Collaborators include Internet2 members Indiana University and Juniper Networks.
Arbor Networks Founded from University of Michigan Research
A team of students founds Arbor Networks from research projects at the University of Michigan. The company specializes in network security and network monitoring software—now used by over 90% of all Internet service providers—that protects networks from denial-of-service attacks, botnets, computer worms, and efforts to disable network routers.
Development of Open-Source Shibboleth Software Begins
Lead Shibboleth collaborators include: Brown University, The Ohio State University, University of Memphis, University of Washington, Georgetown University, the Swiss Education & Research Network (SWITCH), Edina/JISC. Funding sources include: National Science Foundation, Microsoft, Google, the Internet Society. Numerous institutions and network organizations contribute staff resources to development.
EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Security Task Force Created
The EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force is created in July 2000 with staff support from EDUCAUSE and Internet2, leadership from the CIO, CISO, and IT communities, and in coordination with higher education associations. The group aims to make IT security a higher and more visible priority in the R&E community.
Health Sciences Initiative Forms
The Internet2 Health Sciences Initiative forms to serve the interests of, and enable collaboration among, Internet2 members engaging in clinical practice, medical and related biological research, and education and health awareness. The Health Sciences Initiative facilitates member efforts to leverage Internet2 resources to apply solutions to the medical domain.
First Internet2 Land Speed Record Set
A team from Microsoft, Qwest, University of Washington and University of Southern California set a new standard for transcontinental Internet performance by transferring 8.5 gigabytes of data from Redmond, Washington, to Arlington, Virginia, (a distance of 5,626 kilometers) in under 82 seconds for a speed of 831 Mbps, winning the first Internet2 Land Speed Record—and making the Guinness Book of World Records. The Internet2 Land Speed Record (I2-LSR), as it becomes known, is an open and ongoing competition to push the Internet’s performance over high-bandwith, end-to-end networks.
Internet2 Convenes MACE
Internet2 convenes MACE (Middleware Architecture Committee for Education) to help create a national interoperable middleware infrastructure for research and education. By designing pilot projects and inter-campus experiments and recommending technical standards, MACE facilitates the deployment of a common middleware infrastructure to support the academic community.
Internet2 Launches Arts & Humanities Initiative
The Internet2 Arts & Humanities Initiative informs and supports the use of advanced network environments in the arts and humanities. Using high-performance network infrastructure to create global stages, enable remote instruction, allow participatory discovery, and open access to rich collections of media, Internet2 members are redefining how they create, teach, perform, and collaborate.
Internet2 VoIP Working Group Forms
The Internet2 Voice over IP (VoIP) Working Group forms to engage university and corporate technologists from across the community to discuss emerging voice technologies and strategies, investigate the broad implications of network convergence, and increase understanding of how VoIP can improve the scalability, survivability, and functional richness of voice communications.
Virtual Halloween Performance Event
The Fall 2000 Internet2 Member Meeting hosts “Virtual Halloween at the Rialto.” The live event features performances from artists at locations around the country performing together with artists on stage at the Rialto Theater in Atlanta, Georgia, for a live audience of over 500. The program includes performances by artists from the New World Symphony, the University of Delaware and the University of Oklahoma School of Music.
Internet2 SEGP Program Begins
Internet2’s program for Sponsored Education Group Participation (SEGP) in the Abilene Network expands access to state and regional education networks through sponsorship by Internet2 higher education members. By December 2006, 38 state K-20 networks participate, enabling over 46,000 K-12 schools, community colleges, libraries, performing arts centers and museums to connect to the Internet2 backbone network. The program becomes part of the United States Unified Community Anchor Network (US UCAN) in 2014.
Astronomy Observatories Available over Internet2
The University of Hawaii and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy connect 11 of the world’s leading observatories to Internet2 networks via the Mauna Kea Observatories Communication Network. With a capacity of 45 Mbps, the new link makes it possible for astronomers around the world to remotely use telescopes located in Hawaii.
188. Higher Education Members | 74 Industry Members | 42 Affiliate Members | 54 Abilene Connections | 38 International MOU Partners | 513 Million Internet Users | 8.6% World Population
Internet2 is one of several university-led organizations and research centers to receive part of a $12 million award to develop middleware. The National Science Foundation (NSF) award launches the NSF Middleware Initiative (NMI) to create and deploy advanced network services that make it easier for Internet users to access a wide range of resources available through high-performance networks.
First Hands-On IPv6 Workshop Held
The first Internet2 hands-on workshop provides attendees the opportunity to build, debug, and experiment with advanced technologies under the guidance of experts. Students design and set up a functioning IPv6 network and connect to the global IPv6 network via Internet2. Cisco Systems, Juniper Networks, and Microsoft sponsor the Internet2 IPv6 Workshop Series.
Internet2 Launches End-to-End Performance Initiative
The Internet2 End-to-End Performance Initiative forms to create a framework for identifying the source of networking problems; developing measurement tools; collaborating with researchers on related projects; and fostering communication between researchers, network operators, and end-users. Work in this area leads to the creation of the Network Performance Toolkit.
Virtual Internet2 Member Meeting
Due to concerns about travel safety following the September 11 attacks, Internet2 and its membership decide to replace our planned in-person meeting with a Virtual Internet2 Member Meeting (VIMM). Out of 36 sessions planned for the in-person meeting, 22 are presented virtually using both production and experimental video streaming technologies, reaching an audience of over 7,000.
Internet2 K20 Initiative Launches
The Internet2 K20 Initiative brings together Internet2 member institutions and innovators from primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities, libraries, and museums to extend new technologies, applications, middleware, and content to all educational sectors. Later becoming part of the US UCAN initiative, K20 participants leverage the Sponsored Education Group Participant program (now also part of US UCAN) to get the advanced network connectivity they require.
Science and Engineering Initiative Formed
The Internet2 Science and Engineering Initiative is formed to support scientists and researchers in their use of advanced networks for interactive collaboration; distributed data storage and mining; large-scale, multi-site computation; real-time access to remote resources; dynamic data visualization, and shared virtual reality.
The Quilt Forms Consortium of Regional Optical Networks
Over 15 leading regional research and education optical networking organizations (RONs) form “The Quilt” to promote and extend advanced networking services. The Quilt provides a forum for communication about technologies for implementing fiber-optic network infrastructure. Gwendolyn Huntoon, of the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, is The Quilt’s initial executive director.
The Internet2 Commons Launches
The Internet2 Commons promotes and facilitates remote collaboration enabling the Internet2 research and education community to hold distributed working groups, classes, meetings, and events. Initially focused on H.323-based video conferencing services, the Internet2 Commons expands to offer Real Time Communications tool suites.
200 Higher Education Members | 62 Industry Members | 41 Affiliate Members | 57 Connectors | 45 International MOU Partners | 587 Million Internet Users | 9.4% World Population
In its fourth year of operation, the Internet2 backbone network Abilene begins its first major upgrade to 10 Gbps—quadrupling network capacity. The upgrade also deploys native next-generation Internet Protocol (IPv6), complementing IPv6 deployments in other research and education networks around the world. With this upgrade, Abilene provides advanced networking capabilities to over 200 member universities and thousands of affiliated researchers across the country, interconnecting with over 20 other high-performance NRENs around the world.
NLR Collaborative Project Discussed
In its fourth year of operation, the Internet2 backbone network Abilene begins its first major upgrade to 10 Gbps—quadrupling network capacity. The upgrade also deploys native next-generation Internet Protocol (IPv6), complementing IPv6 deployments in other research and education networks around the world. With this upgrade, Abilene provides advanced networking capabilities to over 200 member universities and thousands of affiliated researchers across the country, interconnecting with over 20 other high-performance NRENs around the world.<p>
<b>NLR Collaborative Project Discussed</b><p>
Key national networking leaders begin exploring a collaborative project for the next-generation optical Internet, National LambdaRail (NLR). Including representatives from the NSF-TeraGrid projects, Internet2, CENIC, Pacific Northwest gigapops in California and Seattle, UCSD and UIC, the core group investigates the possibility of leveraging recent investments in regional optical network infrastructure and expanding the technology to a broader national scale by building a follow-on experimental network using the latest optical transmission and switching equipment. The Internet2 Board of Trustees provides $10 million to support institutions participating in the creation and operation of the national fiber network facility, known at that time as the Optical Network Facility Project (ONFP).
The Internet2 Observatory Established
The Observatory is launched to provide a comprehensive real-time operational dataset collected from Internet2’s nationwide high-performance network—not possible in a laboratory environment or on the commercial Internet. Providing for the collocation of network experiments and measurement servers developed by the research community, the project allows researchers and network engineers to gain a better understanding of the utilization and inner workings of large-scale network infrastructure.
First Hands-On Multicast Workshop Held
At the University of Oregon, in the first hands-on Internet2 multicast workshop, students design and configure a set of interconnected multicast networks. Upon completing the workshop, participants can engineer multicast networks at their home institutions, and explain multicast engineering concepts to peers.
First Middleware CAMP and Advance CAMP are Held
Campus Architectural Middleware Planning (CAMP) workshops provide practical guidance to higher education institutions implementing identity and access management infrastructures. Tailored to IT management, architects and implementers, CAMPs offer in-depth discussion on technical standards, architectures, policy, process, and governance work. Original CAMPS are sponsored by the NSF Middleware Initiative.
Internet2 Detective is Released
The Internet2 Detective is a simple application that tells if a computer can access an Internet2 backbone network, how much bandwidth is available, and whether it can receive multicast streaming media—information that was previously discoverable only by network engineers. The new application displayed a small icon in the lower right corner of the desktop to indicate at a glance the capabilities of a computer’s network connection.
OpenSAML is Released
Internet2 releases OpenSAML, a building block for standards-based federated network identity solutions, such as single Internet sign-on for consumer and business users, and secure web service transactions. OpenSAML is a freely available, open-source reference implementation of the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML).
First IPv6 Land Speed Record
The University of Oregon, the Oregon Gigapop, and NYSERNet set the first record for Internet performance using IPv6 as part of the Internet2 Land Speed Record competition. By transferring 3.47 gigabytes over 3000 miles (4810 km) of the network from Eugene, Oregon to Syracuse, New York in one hour, the team set a Land Speed IPv6 category record of 39.81 terabit meters per second.
eduroam Initiative Starts
The eduroam initiative started when, during the preparations for the creation of TERENA’s task force TF-Mobility, Klaas Wierenga of SURFnet shares the idea of combining a RADIUS-based infrastructure with IEEE 802.1X technology to provide roaming network access across R&E networks. Initially the service is joined by institutions in the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Portugal, Croatia and the United Kingdom. Later, other NRENs in Europe embrace the idea and join the infrastructure, which is renamed eduroam.
Cultivating Communities Performance Event Hosted at Bing Theater in Los Angeles
In October 2002, Internet2 presented a music and dance performance event highlighting the capabilities of high-performance networking-enabled collaborations and the talents of performers from member institutions. Cultivating Communities: Dance in the Digital Age used interactive audio and video streamed live from six remote sites around the country to the Bing Theater audience on the University of Southern California (USC) campus, as well as an Internet-wide virtual audience. In addition to high-bandwidth, low-latency audio and video, many other innovative technologies were used, including motion tracking, 10.2 surround sound, and custom-designed screens that allowed for both front and rear projection.
205 Higher Education Members | 64 Industry Members | 42 Affiliate Members | 47 Connectors | 49 International MOU Partners | 719 Million Internet Users | 11.1% World Population
An international team, consisting of members from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and CERN, sets a new Internet2 Land Speed Record by transferring 1.1 terabytes of data across more than 7,000 kilometers of network (nearly 4,300 miles) in less than 30 minutes, representing an average rate of more than 5.44 Gbps.
Indiana University Hosts REN-ISAC
In February, Indiana University becomes host to the Research and Education Networking ISAC (REN-ISAC), part of the national structure of “sector information sharing and analysis centers” (ISACs) whose creation was encouraged by Presidential Directive in 1998 (and superseded by the Homeland Security Presidential Directive of 2003). As a partner of both Internet2 and EDUCAUSE and operator of the Global Research Network Operations Center (GR-NOC), Indiana University has a unique view of national and international R&E networking and is well suited to host the effort to improve operational security across the higher education community. Under the agreement, the GR-NOC expands its security services to include proactive security monitoring, assessment, and reporting to the Abilene Project.
OWAMP 1.0 Released
Internet2 releases OWAMP, an implementation of the One-Way Active Measurement Protocol. OWAMP is an application and a policy daemon used to determine one-way latencies between hosts. OWAMP allows users to better troubleshoot network traffic and enables network providers to better ascertain the exact behavior of their networks and apply resources where improvement is most likely.
SDSC Becomes Third ITEC
The San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California, San Diego becomes the third Internet2 Technology Evaluation Center (ITEC). The mission of the center is to test and evaluate leading-edge technologies for high-performance Internet2 networks, working with developers to test and refine network hardware and software for optimal end-to-end network performance.
Internet2 Establishes FiberCo
Internet2 establishes the National Research and Education Fiber Company (FiberCo) to support regional fiber optical networking initiatives dedicated to research and higher education. FiberCo complements existing Internet2 network infrastructure by providing a means for acquiring fiber optic network assets. FiberCo helps Internet2 facilitate the ongoing development of regional optical networking initiatives.
Shibboleth 1.0 Released
Shibboleth, a project of Internet2’s Middleware Architecture Committee for Education, allows Internet2 member institutions to share Web resources, across or within organizational boundaries, in an access-controlled environment. Shibboleth enables individuals in the higher education community to conduct inter-institutional collaboration.
First Performance Production and Music Education Workshop
Internet2 and the New World Symphony host a two-day workshop on “Producing Performances and Distance Education.” The workshop features an overview of audio/video production to help members create successful interactive digital video/audio productions for performance and distance education. The successful workshop is repeated many times in the years to come, both in the US and Europe.
Internet2 Commons Offers H.323 Videoconferencing Service
Internet2 Commons launches easy-to-use, multi-site IP videoconferencing solution—based on H.323 video and audio standards—creating an affordable and accessible service for Internet2’s members. A program is launched to train Site Coordinators within member organizations to provide support for Commons services.
Texas A&M University Opens ITEC for VoIP
Texas A&M University becomes the first Internet2 voice-over-IP Technology Evaluation Center (ITEC). Voice-over-IP (VoIP) opens up a wide spectrum of opportunities to improve voice services far beyond plain-old telephone service. The Texas A&M ITEC focuses on VoIP security, assurance, and interoperability, later providing national leadership in emergency communications and Next-Generation 911 technology.
MAN LAN Established
The collocation facility at 32 Avenue of the Americas—and the MAN LAN international peering fabric now located there—are built and become available to the national and international community. NYSERNet, Internet2, and the Indiana Global NOC become the major stakeholders in the facility.
Facebook Emerges from Harvard University Network
Facemash (Facebook’s predecessor) is created at Harvard University by student collaborators who use the institution’s abundant Ethernet network capabilities for advanced upload and development. Nine years later (2012), Facebook files for an initial public offering (IPO), and announces the company has 845 million active monthly users, with its website featuring 2.7 billion daily likes and comments. The IPO raised $16 billion, making it the third-largest in US history (just ahead of AT&T Wireless and behind only General Motors and Visa, Inc.)
204 Higher Education Members | 69 Industry Members | 43 Affiliate Members | 44 Connectors | 51 International MOU Partners | 817 Million Internet Users | 12.7 % World Population
Oceanographer Bob Ballard returns to the site of his team’s discovery of the Titanic, nearly 20 years before. Internet2 members collaborate to bring the scientists’ work live to classrooms, marine sanctuaries, and museums worldwide—where visitors view the live video and interact with the team at sea.
Interdomain Dynamic Circuit Provisioning Co-Development Begins
Co-development of Interdomain Dynamic Circuit Provisioning begins with technology from partners ESnet, California Institute of Technology, GÉANT, CANARIE, Indiana University, with additional funding by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.
InCommon Launched as First National Identity Management Federation
Internet2 launches InCommon, the first nationwide trust network to serve the research and education community. Starting with 10 university participants, InCommon has grown to more than 850 participants taking advantage of the trust framework, enabling convenient, single sign-on access to protected online resources.
Abilene Network Upgrade Completed
The Abilene Network completes its upgrade from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps, quadrupling network capacity. Abilene partners, Indiana University, Juniper Networks, and Qwest Communications provide the equipment and services to successfully implement the network upgrade. New routers are installed across the 13,000 route-mile national backbone, upgrading all but one circuit to OC-192c.
SIP.edu Community Expands to Over 140,000 Users
Universities take the lead in adopting next-generation Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-based solutions for their communications needs. The Internet2 SIP.edu initiative promotes the convergence of email and voice identities, the growth of SIP accessibility, and the deployment of enterprise SIP servers. SIP.edu expands to over 140,000 users.
National Internet2 Day Held
The virtual National Internet2 Day features several advanced networking presentations and demonstrations from across Internet2’s membership. Presentations focus on collaboration technologies and advanced applications for teaching, science, and research. A jazz ensemble provides live musical interludes, demonstrating the potential of advanced networking in delivering live performance events.
NSF International Research Networking Connection (IRNC) Program Launched
“Connecting the US to the world,” the NSF IRNC program (2004-2016) contributes millions of dollars in support of the high-performance network connectivity required by international science and engineering R&E collaborations involving the NSF research community. The program links US research networks with peer networks in Canada, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa and leverages existing international network connectivity, and continues to provide high-performance network connectivity to the US science community.
LEARN Launched at Internet2 Fall Member Meeting
At this Internet2 meeting, Texas Governor Rick Perry, Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst, and Texas House Speaker Tom Craddick announce the initial capital funding for Lonestar Education and Research Network (LEARN). The Office of Telecommunication Services (OTS) subsequently engineers and operates a Texas-wide IP backbone network for the University of Texas System and Texas Higher Education Network (THEnet) using intercity fiber-optic links leased from LEARN. LEARN upgrades to two 100 Gbps Internet2 Network connections by 2015.
207 Higher Education Members | 67 Industry Members | 47 Affiliate Members | 42 Connectors | 52 International MOU Partners | 1.18 Billion Internet Users | 15.7% World Population
Internet2-NLR Merger Plans Discussed
Community leaders request that an Internet2-NLR merger be investigated. Committees produce two reports: Group A analyzes Internet2 and NLR service plans, technical and operational requirements, and makes recommendations to facilitate convergence; Group B proposes schemes to effectively combine the plans and activities of Internet2 and NLR. In June Internet2 Board of Trustees adopts the Group B proposal. Joint Merger Team is created and establishes guiding principles. From June through December, with strong community engagement, issues regarding commitment to research, representative governance, owned infrastructure, unity of network infrastructure, acceptable use policy, sustainable financial model, partnership investment model, and sources and uses of funds transparency are thoughtfully addressed. Both organizations’ boards adopt the Merger Principles, including a merged organizational budget.
HOPI Initiative Launches Testbed
The Internet2 Hybrid Optical And Packet Infrastructure (HOPI) initiative introduces a testbed for advanced network architecture experimentation. This national network testbed infrastructure serves as a foundation for cutting-edge experimentation and a model for the next-generation Internet2 Network architecture.
Martin Swany is First Internet2 Faculty Fellow
Internet2 selects Martin Swany as its first Internet2 Faculty Fellow. Professor Swany, of the University of Delaware, is chosen because of his deep experience in network monitoring, a critical element of Internet2’s End-to-End Performance initiative that enables researchers from around the world to better understand the performance of advanced next-generation networks.
The OASIS Standard SAML2 is released in March. Designed to define an XML framework for exchanging authentication and authorization information, key internet2 community contributors participated to ensure the resulting standard supported the architecture for research and education.
A Decade of Collaboration | 208 Higher Education Members | 68 Industry Members | 54 Affiliate Members | 35 Connectors | 59 International MOU Partners | 1.18 Billion Internet Users | 15.7% World Population
Internet2 and EDUCAUSE Work To Protect Net Neutrality
Internet2 and EDUCAUSE work together with a wide coalition of organizations to safeguard the founding Internet principle of “net neutrality” in telecom reform legislation. The coalition seeks to protect the openness of the Internet to ensure continued US innovation and leadership in the global Internet economy and in research and education.
First IDEA Award Winners
Internet2 announces the first winners of its Internet2 Driving Exemplary Applications (IDEA) Awards program, which seeks to recognize leading innovators who have created and deployed advanced network applications for research, teaching, and learning. The four winning submissions were judged on the depth of their potential impact, the technical merit of the application, and the likelihood that the application would be adopted.
Community Design Workshop Hosted
Internet2 hosts a Community Design Workshop inviting over 120 technical and executive staff—representing both current and prospective connectors to the Internet2 national network infrastructure—to provide their expertise and guidance on plans for building the new Internet2 national network infrastructure.
Internet2 and Industry Partners Announce Plans for Next Generation Nationwide Research Network
Internet2 announces plans to deploy a new nationwide network that will offer 100 Gbps of capacity (10 times that of the current Internet2 network). The new network will be built on Level 3 Communications optical networking infrastructure, utilizing Infinera digital optical networking equipment and Ciena CoreDirector multiservice switches.
Internet2 and ESnet Announce Partnership
The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Sciences Network and Internet2 partner to deploy next-generation network for scientific research and discovery. The partnership brings together two advanced networks that have a combined 30 years of experience in providing network support to thousands of researchers worldwide.
WaveCo Service Launches
Internet2 launches a new service, called WaveCo, to provide members with access to dedicated optical wavelengths beyond the Internet2 Network footprint using circuits provisioned by Level 3 Communications. WaveCo and FiberCo allow Internet2 members to economically own and use the essential building blocks of advanced networking infrastructure.
Signet and Grouper Released
The Signet Privilege Management System and the Grouper Group Management Toolkit, both projects of the Internet2 Middleware Architecture Committee for Education provide critical information functions needed to support enhanced role- and permission-based authorization control. The software enables the consistent application of business access rules across managed services and resources. Later, the Internet2 community focuses development on Grouper, decommissioning the Signet work, and adding additional access management features into Grouper.
US Higher Education Root PKI Service (USHER) Deployed
USHER, the US Higher Education Root provides a basis for campuses to deploy signed documents, secure email, and other applications. Serving as both an infrastructure and an initiative, it includes a root (a trust anchor or certification authority) to identify campus roots (CA’s) and recommended applications, tools, and metadata.
First Wavelength Goes Live
The first 10 Gbps wavelength of the new Internet2 Network is operational between New York and Chicago. Achieving this goal just five months and eight days after signing the agreement with Level 3 Communications is the result of dedicated, persistent teamwork by many people, particularly those at the Global Research NOC at Indiana University, Level 3, Infinera and Ciena. The team is on target for full deployment by August 2007.
Internet2 Marks 10 Year Anniversary at Fall Meeting
The Internet2 member community gathers for the Fall 2006 Internet2 Member Meeting, marking the 10-year anniversary of Internet2’s launch, which took place in Chicago in 1996.
Internet2-NLR merger Efforts Fail
Though Internet2 and NLR boards and communities are committed in principle to a merger being in the best interest of the R&E community with work continuing in good faith over a number of months, the process ultimately becomes deadlocked and convergence efforts fail. Due to the unique nature of each organization, especially in the structure and implementation of the governance, the Internet2 Board of Trustees resolves to terminate Internet2 membership in NLR.
207 Higher Education Members | 59 Industry Members | 50 Affiliate Members | 33 Connectors + 29 R&E Network Members | 59 International MOU Partners | 1.32 Billion Internet Users | 20% World Population
Internet2 switches on the new dynamic circuit Internet2 Network operated by Level 3 Communications.
Internet2 Revamps Governance Structure
Mike Roberts, Jeff Lehman, David Lassner, and others on the Governance committee reorganize advisory committee structure and Board membership, including regional representation.
2011 Higher Education Members | 57 Industry Members | 44 Affiliate Members | 23 Connectors + 31 R&E Network Members | 62 International MOU Partners | 1.57 Billion Internet Users | 23.5% World Population
Exemplifying the marriage of technical innovation and artistic excellence, the Philadelphia Orchestra becomes the first major orchestra to multicast a concert to large-screen venues. Through the Internet2 Network and with the collaboration of R&E member MAGPI, the groundbreaking program brings one of the world’s greatest musical ensembles to audiences around the globe, live and interactive.
Interdomain Dynamic Circuit Provisioning Introduced
Internet2 ION (Interoperable On-demand Network) goes into production. ION is a dynamic circuit network (DCN) service that allows researchers and network engineers to create dedicated, point-to-point, interdomain circuits in real-time or reserve them in advance. VLAN provisioning partners include ESnet, California Institute of Technology, GÉANT, CANARIE, Indiana University. Funding sources include the Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and Internet2. The service is succeeded by Layer 2 Services.
iHDTV Peeks Behind the Scenes at LHC
September marks the first-ever circulation of a proton beam around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), representing a major milestone in our understanding of the fundamental nature of the universe. This is also an important milestone for the Internet2 advanced networking community in support of US research. The LHC generates many petabytes of data per year and accumulates an exabyte of real and simulated data within the first decade of its estimated 20 years of operation. Internet2 and its regional partner networks, ESnet and USLHCNet provide the critical national and transatlantic infrastructure linking US LHC scientists to this data, and to their research partners in Europe and Asia.
211 Higher Education Members | 47 Industry Members | 57 Affiliate Members | 23 Connectors + 33 R&E Network Members | 64 International MOU Partners | 1.8 Billion Internet Users | 26.6% World Population
Live Telehealth Demonstration with Department of Veterans Affairs
Internet2 members attending the Spring Member Meeting witnessed how leading-edge “telepresence” technology can be harnessed to advance important telehealth initiatives. Developed by Internet2 and the US Department of Veterans Affairs, the demonstration connected a local psychiatrist with a remotely located “wounded warrior” veteran patient. The demonstration was the first Cisco TelePresence session held over the Internet2 Network.
Performing Arts Production Workshop Held in Trieste, Italy
After seven years of successfully co-hosting the Performing Arts Production Workshop with New World Symphony in the US, Internet2 partners with TERENA (now GÉANT) to hold the workshop for the first time internationally. Hosted by GARR in cooperation with the Music Conservatory of Trieste, Italy, the workshop highlights the first presentation of a fully integrated, computerized audio and echo control system, and of LOLA–a low-latency audio/video streaming technology.
Enhanced pS-perfSONAR Toolkit Released
The easy-to-install suite of tools provides performance metrics, monitoring and diagnostics to significantly improve users’ network experience. Formerly called the pS-Network Performance Toolkit, it can be used to turn any Intel-based computer into an active network performance node. Developed in partnership with ESnet, Fermilab, Georgia Tech, Indiana University, Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, SLAC National Accelerator Lab and the University of Delaware.
Transatlantic and US Network Link to LHC
Level 3 and Internet2 announce an expanded relationship to provide transatlantic and US network connectivity for US LHCNet. The network will transport data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a massive particle accelerator spanning the French-Swiss border, to more than 1,700 scientists at 94 institutions across the United States.
InCommon Federation Hits 4 Million Mark
The InCommon Federation community now serves more than 4 million end-users. The federation also has nearly 200 participating organizations, including colleges and universities, research labs, agencies of the US Government, and private companies that offer web-based resources and services.
217 Higher Education Members | 48 Industry Members | 61 Affiliate Members | 21 Connectors + 33 R&E Network Members | 66 International MOU Partners — Total National and International Internet2 Middleware Workshop/Seminar Attenance Exceeds 4,000 Since 2002. | 1.97 Billion Internet Users | 28.8% World Population
The US Department of Commerce Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) provides funding to support next-generation networking with up to 8.8 Tbps of wavelength capacity to meet current and future needs of the US research and higher education community, and extend new capabilities to community anchor institutions nationwide. Collaborators, technology partners, and funding partners include Indiana University, Northern Tier Network Consortium, Infinera, Ciena, Juniper Networks, and Cisco.
H. David Lambert Named Internet2 President and CEO
H. David (Dave) Lambert becomes Internet2 president and CEO. At the time of his appointment, Lambert was Vice President for Information Services and Chief Information Officer at Georgetown University, where his leadership efforts focused on the deployment of advanced technology infrastructure, modern information systems, and responsive technical support services. Lambert previously served as Vice President for Information Technology at Cornell University (1994–1997) and had been involved in Internet2 since its founding in 1996.
US Unified Community Anchor Network (US UCAN) Initiative Launched
US UCAN is launched in cooperation with regional R&E networks to connect community anchor institutions across the country to advanced broadband capabilities—including schools, libraries, healthcare facilities, and other public institutions—enabling them to serve their communities with telemedicine, distance learning and other life-changing applications.
100G Ethernet Internet2 Network Project Begins with 100 Gbps Core Router Deployment
The first milestone in nationwide network upgrade is laid: the deployment of Juniper 100 Gbps core router technology to increase the resiliency and core capacity of the Internet2 Network while achieving maximum operational and power efficiencies. Once complete, the network will be one of the most sophisticated R&E platforms ever built.
InCommon Launches Certificate Service
The new service provides US higher education community institutions with unlimited server and personal certificates at one fixed annual fee—covering all of an institution’s domains, including those hosted for professional societies, athletics, or other campus-based organizations. Conceived and governed by IT leaders in higher education, the service provides a cost-effective means of deploying and operating a more secure online environment.
Internet2-NOAA Partner to Provide New High-Capacity National Research Network
Internet2 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announce a partnership to deploy a highly reliable, high-capacity nationwide network to significantly enhance the capabilities of NOAA’s researchers and their collaborators, connecting them with key high-performance computing sites across the US. The ARRA-funded research network is called “N-Wave.”
TR-CPS Consolidation Agreement Signed
Internet2 and CENIC take steps to consolidate the TransitRail and Commercial Peering Services into one TR-CPS service over the next several months.
Science Discovery and Advanced Networking Reaches 1.5 Miles Below the Earth’s Surface at DUSEL
South Dakota Governor M. Michael Roryunds addresses Spring 2010 Internet2 Member Meeting via videoconference on The National Science Foundation’s funding of the development and preliminary designs for a new Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) 8,000 feet deep at the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD. Construction is set to start in late 2012.
NIH and USDA Partner with Internet2 to Accelerate Research
Two major governmental agencies announce partnerships with Internet2. In February, the National Institutes of Health and George Washington University researchers partner with Internet2 to accelerate genomics research over new 100 Gbps links. In December, the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) announces plans to implement a high-speed, research-only enterprise network using the Internet2 backbone to connect six major USDA-ARS research centers at speeds of 10 to 100 Gbps.
222 Higher Education Members | 44 Industry Members | 65 Affiliate Members | 20 Connectors + 37 R&E Network Members | 69 International MOU Partners | 2.27 Billion Internet Users |32.7% World Population
First Transcontinental 100G Network Deployment
With the first 100GigE IP circuit between Washington DC and New York successfully lit by August, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Internet2 announce the completion of the world’s first transcontinental 100 Gbps deployment in October. Built on Ciena’s 6500 Packet-Optical Platform, the new 8.8 Tbps network is equipped with 100 Gbps optical backbone connections. Those connections are now operational between New York, Washington D.C., Cleveland, Chicago, Kansas City, Denver, Salt Lake City, and Sunnyvale spanning a distance nearly 4000 miles.
Internet2 NET+ Initiative Established To Provide Customized Cloud Services to University Faculty, Staff and Students Nationwide
Driven by the R&E community, Internet2 NET+ is created to provide secure, agile and reliable cloud standards for R&E. Through a rigorous peer-driven evaluation process, R&E institutions and cloud service providers work together to develop offerings that maximize deployment efficiencies and minimize the business and legal challenges, financial costs, and technology risks of migrating from on-campus to cloud-based solutions.
Internet2, Indiana University, and Stanford University Partner To Create New Network Development and Deployment Initiative Based on OpenFlow
Built using the first production deployment of OpenFlow technology to deliver “software-defined networking” (SDN) capabilities, NDDI provides a common infrastructure for creating multiple virtual networks, allowing network researchers to experiment with new Internet protocols and architectures, and enabling domain scientists to accelerate their active research with collaborators worldwide.
First Real-Time Simultaneous Musical Performance Demonstrated
The first long-distance, real-time, simultaneous live musical performance in the US is demonstrated over the Internet2 Network between musicians in Raleigh, NC and DeKalb, IL using low-latency audiovisual (LOLA) streaming technology and spanning a distance of some 900 miles.
First Global R&E Network CEO Forum Held
The first Global R&E Network CEO Forum takes place in Geneva. The Forum brings together leaders from the world’s major R&E networking organizations to investigate and select topics where value could be generated on a global scale. The Forum continues to stimulate and accelerate the global implementation and adoption of new services to create value for the R&E community.
221 Higher Education Members | 55 Industry Members | 67 Affiliate Members | 22 Connectors + 38 R&E Network Members | 96 International MOU Partners | 2.5 Billion Internet Users |35.7% World Population
Nation’s First 100G Open, National-Scale, Software-Defined Network Completed
Featuring advanced services for education, research, and industry, the upgraded Internet2 Network offers research, education, and community anchor institutions world-class support for cloud application delivery; extraordinary broadband capabilities for science, medicine, and education; a 100 Gbps software-defined network platform supporting both production services and network innovation; and over 8.8 Tbps of optical network capacity through 88 individual 100-Gbps waves delivered through a unique partnership between Internet2 and the Department of Energy’s Energy Sciences Network (ESnet).
Internet2, 16 Major Technology Companies Announce Cloud Service Partnerships to Benefit the Nation’s Universities
Major cloud service partnerships are announced with offerings customized to meet the needs of the Internet2 community and ranging in stages from incubator, proof-of-concept, and early adopter to general availability.
Higher Education Leaders Announce Innovation Platform to Advance US Scientific Research and Help Reduce Higher Education Costs
OARnet, Arizona State University, Case Western Reserve University, Clemson University, Georgia Tech, Indiana University, The Ohio State University, the University of Cincinnati, and regional networks including I-Light (Indiana) and Southern-Crossroads (SOX) announce their intent to become Internet2 Innovation Platform pilot sites. These organizations work with Internet2 and advanced regional networks to construct their innovation infrastructure, which includes: a 100 gigabit Ethernet (GE) technology Layer 2 connection, support for software-defined networking (SDN), and implementation of a Science DMZ.
8K Ultra HD Video Demonstrated at Internet2 Spring 2012 Member Meeting
Internet2 member NTT presents exciting demonstrations focused on “SHV (Super High Vision) over IP” technology—an Ultra-HD video stream and high-speed broadband application, used to broadcast key worldwide sporting events like the 2012 Olympics and 2014 FIFA World Cup at 16 times the resolution of a typical HD broadcast. Subsequent broadcasts include international public/private collaborations between NTT, NHK, the BBC, Comcast, Internet2, JANET, GÉANT, SINET4, and GEMnet2. The original video from NHK cameras streamed at 48 Gbps (as compared to 20 Mbps and below for typical HDTV broadcasts streams), compressed to 360 Mbps for delivery to several nations. Subsequent presentations on this collaboration have been made at Internet2 conferences.
US Government-Approved InCommon Assurance Program Goes Live
InCommon publishes the Bronze and Silver Assurance Profiles, certifying identity providers that meet certain standards for consistent management of digital identities. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) accepts Bronze and Silver as substantially equivalent to US Government levels of assurance.
Final Fall Member Meeting Held in Philadelphia, PA
With a theme of “Community, Innovation, Transformation,” the final conference in Fall Member Meeting format was just that. Keynotes from NSF, NYU, and NKN via telepresence from India headlined, but the breathtaking long-distance, real-time, simultaneous live musical performance via LOLA technology stole the show, bringing attendees to their feet: Violinist Marjorie Bagley (UNC Greensboro) plays live on stage from Philly, with remote cellist Cheng-Hou Lee (N. Illinois University) collaborating via video from Dekalb, IL, to perform a masterful rendition of the Handel-Halvorsen Passacaglia. In 2013 the twice-yearly Member Meeting format is retired in favor of a larger, annual meeting—becoming the Internet2 Global Summit in 2014.
227 Higher Education Members | 63 Industry Members | 70 Affiliate Members | 23 Connectors + 39 R&E Network Members | 72 International MOU Partners | 2.8 Billion Internet Users | 39% World Population
The Joint Techs conference series, co-sponsored by Internet2 and the Department of Energy’s Energy Science Network (ESnet) Site Coordinating Committee (ESCC)—which brought together networking experts from around the world since 1998 to address the most pressing R&E networking challenges—retires this format in January, succeeded by the Internet2 Technology Exchange beginning in Fall 2014.
XSEDE Upgrades Network to Internet2’s 100G Network
XSEDE—an NSF-supported project that brings together 17 supercomputers, visualization, and data analysis engines, and data storage resources—migrates and upgrades its network backbone to the Internet2 Network. The new infrastructure provides 100GE-enabled access to more than 8,000 scientists, advancing research and education across the US.
Internet2 Announces Strategic Content and Distribution Initiative with Smithsonian
A new collaboration is initiated between Internet2 and the Smithsonian Institution, enabling Smithsonian staff and researchers to share historical and cultural collections, access remote instruments, and promote interactivity between professors, researchers, teachers, and libraries, creating important learning opportunities for the entire Internet2 community.
Internet2 and Networking Industry Partners Drive Innovation and Development of SDN and OpenFlow Applications for 100G Networks
Innovative Application Awards program launched to reward the best open-source end-user applications that make use of OpenFlow-enabled software-defined networking (SDN) capabilities of switches and controllers like those found on the Internet2 Network.
Shibboleth Consortium Launched
The research and development of Shibboleth software, the key to R&E identity management federations around the world, move from Internet2 to the global Shibboleth Consortium, formed by Internet2, Janet and SWITCH. The goal of the collaboration is to ensure the ongoing development, support, and maintenance of the software.
Singapore Global Facility Established
Several US universities partner with Internet2 to share a data center and exchange/colocation facility in Singapore to more efficiently support the operations of their growing global campuses. The facility, developed by Internet2 in partnership with NYU, Duke University, the University of Chicago and Florida International University, provides enhanced networking and computing services for research R&E sites, including a regional POP network serving multiple Asia-Pacific locations, and a new connection point for Internet2 videoconferencing services.
Internet2 Offers First Executive Track at 2013 Annual Meeting
This special conference track offers a selection of sessions and speakers tailored to the interests and issues of R&E executive leaders, with activities designed to be relevant and valuable to their work, as well as offering opportunities to gather with peers for collaboration and discussion.
279 Higher Education Members | 77 Industry Members | 67 Affiliate Members | 23 Connectors + 42 R&E Network Members | 72 International MOU Partners | 3.08 Billion Internet Users | 45% World Population
Building on the success of previous Member Meetings, the 2014 Internet2 Global Summit was launched as one of two new annual Internet2 community anchor events. The Global Summit reflects the international nature of our community’s work, and the challenges we are rising to meet—together.
Internet2, US Research and Education Take First Step Toward Global Interfederation
Internet2’s trust and identity community and the InCommon Steering Committee vote to join the international eduGAIN service, which interconnects identity federations worldwide. The group agrees to the eduGAIN declaration, the first formal step toward interconnecting Internet2’s InCommon—the US research and education identity federation—with its peers in other federations worldwide.
Scientists Get Ultra-Fast, Robust Transatlantic Network
Internet2, NORDUnet, ESnet, SURFnet, and CANARIE launch the world’s first and fastest intercontinental network for research and education. The “Advanced North Atlantic 100G Pilot” (or ANA-100G) traverses the North Atlantic Ocean providing intercontinental transmission links and support for the most advanced, data-intensive research and education applications.
Internet2 Announces First Full-Production Virtual Internet Network Architecture
The first nationwide, multi-tenant SDN-powered virtualized network capability is announced. Virtualization is a fundamental advance in network architecture, allowing users to subdivide a network to operate as multiple discrete, private networks. Applications can now access the scale and innovative technologies of the Internet2 Network in isolated, virtual “slices,” removing the prohibitive barriers of building and operating individual physical network infrastructures.
Community Adds Valuable NET+ Cloud Services to Portfolio
Through the NET+ Service Validation process, approximately 50 cloud services are equipped in accordance with Ramp;&E standards and customized for R&E institutions’ needs, including Amazon Web Services, Blue Jeans, Vidyo, Splunk, SeeVogh, Desire2Learn, SIP Services, Blackboard, rSmart OneCampus, LabArchives and many more.
Gender Diversity Initiative Established
The Gender Diversity Initiative is created to promote diversity in technology, providing special support for emerging IT women professionals to attend Internet2 technical conferences through a series of scholarship awards, thereby supporting their entry into IT and the Internet2 community. The first awards were granted in connection with the 2014 Technology Exchange.
Trust and Identity in Education and Research (TIER) Initiative Launched
Internet2’s TIER initiative is launched to build on the community’s extensive trust and identity solutions which already provide a secure bridge between research and education resources and experience for over eight million people. TIER will provide a common framework for campus identity and access management (IAM) components, extend previous investments, integrate existing community-developed solutions, and enable participants to better provide and access services, both on- and off-campus.
Inaugural Internet2 Technology Exchange Held in Indianapolis
Building on the success of previous Joint Techs meetings, the 2014 Technology Exchange was launched as the second of two annual Internet2 community anchor events, designed to convene cross-functional experts from cybersecurity, network architecture, identity, and cloud computing to spark new, integrated technologies to support and inspire the vital and pioneering work of scientists and educators across the globe.
304 Higher Education Members | 78 Industry Members | 73 Affiliate Members | 30 Connectors + 43 R&E Network Members | 77 International MOU Partners | 3.37 Billion Internet Users | 46.4% World Population
Hundreds of students from six states descend on the Lincoln Memorial—without even leaving their classrooms. Students participate in a free, live interactive videoconference program called the US Presidential Primary Sources Project (PPSP), a collaboration between the National Park Service (NPS), US presidential libraries and museums, other cultural and historic organizations, and the Internet2 R&E community, including its United States Unified Community Anchor Network (US UCAN) program.
Internet2 and PBS Team Up to Present a Vision for a Digital Future at 2015 Global Summit
Internet2 announces a digital technology partnership with PBS to meet the growing educational needs in America, including the need to close math and science gaps and train teachers in the use of new technologies. Organizations can collaborate to use technology to create trusted information networks that can be accessed anywhere at any time, including PBS’s work in public service media, technology, and education.
100G Networks, Innovation Platform Technologies Implemented by 50 Universities, Laboratories, and Regional R&E Networks
Arizona, Nevada, Virginia and Montana universities join other forward-looking US higher education institutions, regional networks, and laboratories who have begun implementing the Internet2 Innovation Platform: 100GE Layer 2 connection, software-defined networking support, and Science DMZ to prepare for a new breed of tailored, better-yielding cyberinfrastructure services for scientific researchers and educators.
Higher Education Drives Cloud Change
Through the Internet2 community-driven NET+ initiative, the collaboration between institutions removes obstacles to cloud adoption and logs $250 million in operating benefits across R&E. Over 300 schools log more than 600 subscriptions to a portfolio of approximately 50 peer-directed NET+ services which enable seamless single sign-on authentication and one-click access for over 8 million R&E users through Internet2’s InCommon federated identity management system. Also, the first NET+ service provider, Box, announces unlimited storage for R&E institutions.
COmanage 1.0 Released
COmanage (Collaborative Organization Management), a project funded by Internet2 and the National Science Foundation, releases version 1.0. By leveraging federated identity, COmanage automatically creates accounts and access controls for a wide range of tools, like wikis, calendars, conferencing, and other applications.
InCommon Federation Hits 800 Participants
More than 500 higher education institutions, more than 250 corporate partners, and 30 government and nonprofit laboratories and research labs combine to push InCommon past the 800 participant milestone. At this point, InCommon serves almost 9 million end-users through federated identity management.
314 Higher Education Members | 79 Industry Members | 69 Affiliate Members | 33 Connectors + 43 R&E Network Members | 77 International MOU Partners
Internet2’s US UCAN partners with the National Park Service to live stream former President and Mrs. Carter discussing their lives in public service and answering questions from their audience—including two classrooms full of students connected via Internet2. Internet2 is also honored to stream other interactive events with the former president, including the 2013 anniversary celebration of the signing of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and public remarks during Rosalynn Carter’s 2015 birthday celebration at the Jimmy Carter National Historic Site.
InCommon Goes into Production with Global Interfederation
InCommon completes integration with the eduGAIN global interfederation service, joining 38 other national federations in providing convenient single sign-on interaction with research and education—and corporate service providers—around the world. Researchers, faculty, students, and staff can now enjoy seamless access to collaboration tools and other services made available by any of these national federations.
Internet2 Trust and Identity Area Formed To Sustain and Build on the Community’s Work in Identity
Recognizing that trust and identity has become an essential part of the global R&E infrastructure, Internet2 establishes the position of vice president for trust and identity services to provide the community with leadership in this area. The InCommon Federation, InCommon Certificate Service, InCommon Assurance Program, eduroam, and the Trust and Identity in Education and Research (TIER) Program all fall within the purview of the new vice president.